Few states have a more diverse climate than that of Virginia.
The state has five different climate regions: the Tidewater, Piedmont, Northern
Virginia, Western Mountain, and Southwestern Mountain regions. Some localities--Charlottesville, Lynchburg, and Warrenton, for example--have climate amenities
such as long growing seasons and infrequent subzero temperature minimums, while
winters on the northern Blue Ridge frequently produce bitterly cold
temperatures like those of Chicago. Similarly, annual rainfall totals can vary
from a sparse thirty-three inches typical of the Shenandoah Valley to more than
sixty inches in the mountains of southwestern Virginia.
Virginias climate results from global-scale weather patterns that are
modified by the diverse landscape of the Commonwealth. While detailed
discussion of the global-scale contribution is beyond the scope of this
newsletter, the states landscape provides local controls primarily in three
ways. First, the Atlantic Ocean and its river of warm water, commonly called
the Gulf Stream, play a dominant role in differentiating Virginias
precipitation climate. Winter storms generally move or track from west to
east and, in the vicinity of the east coast, move northeastward paralleling the
coast and the Gulf Stream. This shift to a northeast track results in part from
the tendency of the storm to follow the boundary between the cold land and the
warm Gulf Stream Waters. These storms grow rapidly as they cross the coast; and
as they move northeastward, moisture-laden air from the storm crosses Virginia
from the east and northeast. The eastern slopes and foothills of the Blue Ridge
Mountains are the prime recipients of this moisture. The great coastal storms
of 1962, which are remembered primarily because of the high surf and storm
surges along Virginias coast, also produced record snowfalls along the
northern section of the Blue Ridge mountains.
The high relief of the Appalachian and Blue Ridge mountain systems also
helps to control Virginias climate. The influence here originates with the
well-developed rainfall pattern that is evident along the great mountains of
the western margin of North America. Great quantities of rain fall on these
western slopes as moist air from the Pacific Ocean flows eastward, rises,
condenses, and precipitates. As the air flows down over the eastern slopes,
however, little rain falls and a rain shadow pattern results. Along the
Appalachian and Blue Ridge Mountains of western Virginia, this airflow is
sometimes from the west and sometimes from the east. When the flow is from the
west, the New River and Shenandoah River valleys are in the rain shadow of the
Appalachian Mountains; when the airflow is from the east, they are in the
shadow of the Blue Ridge Mountains. As a result, both the New River and the
Shenandoah River valleys are the driest portions of the state. Regions of
equally low rainfall are rare in the eastern United States (although common
along the eastern margins of the great plains of the central United States).
The third important local control on climate is the states complex
pattern of rivers and streams, which drain the precipitation that falls and
modify the pattern of moist airflow from which the precipitation falls. These
river systems drain the Commonwealths terrain in all four geographical
directions. In far southwestern Virginia, the Clinch and Holston rivers drain
south into North Carolina and Tennessee. The New River drains westward into the
Ohio River, while the Shenandoah River drains northward into the Potomac.
Finally, the Roanoke, James, York, and Rappahannock rivers drain eastward
through the Piedmont and into the Tidewater area. The air that flows across
Virginia flows either up these river valleys or over the crests of the
mountains and down into the valleys. With a southerly flow of air, for example,
moist air would move up the Holston River drainage, and rainfall would increase
up valley with increasing elevation. However, this same southerly airflow would
be downhill into the New River drainage, and on toward the Ohio River basin.
This downward flow of air is not conducive to rainfall.
Virginias wide variety of agricultural products marks the economic
benefits of its climate diversity. The close quarters of dissimilar climatic
zones also has its costs, however, because the boundaries between zones are not
fixed and the year-to-year constancy of conditions is rare. A climate condition
typical of one region might in a given year extend outward into another
area. As an example, low rainfall
levels typical of the Shenandoah Valleys thirty-three inches per year may
extend eastward across the Blue Ridge, out across the Piedmont, and into the
Tidewater region. In such a case, drought, crop failure, and economic losses
like those of the past summer may be extensive.
Much of Virginias rainfall results from storms associated with warm and
cold fronts. As already noted, these storms generally move from west to east
and, in the vicinity of the east coast, move northeastward. While a very large
number of specific storm histories and storm tracks can occur and a great
diversity of precipitation patterns can result, not all are equally
common. Storms are most frequently
observed to move parallel to the Appalachian or the Blue Ridge Mountains, the
coastal zone, and the Gulf Stream, all of which have a northeast trend, or to
move parallel to the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley. When storms cross
the east coast well to the south of Virginia and move offshore, the heaviest
rain usually falls in southeastern Virginia. When these storms become very
intense or when they closely skirt the coastline, the strong up-slope winds
result in heavy rainfalls on the Blue Ridge. Frequently, frontal storms
tracking along the Ohio Valley move across southern Pennsylvania and off the
New Jersey coast; as such storms approach the coast, great quantities of moist
air flow inland and then southward into Virginia.
When sufficient cold air invades Virginia from the west and northwest,
frontal storms may cause heavy snowfalls. Two of the states most dramatic
frontal snowstorms of recent years occurred during the Christmas holidays of
1966 and 1969. In both cases, the Storm
tracked along the Gulf and the east coasts and crossed over Tidewater Virginia;
a strong east and northeast flow brought moist air across the state, overriding
cold air from the west. While heavy snows are common in the Piedmont region,
the average winter does not have a major coastal snowstorm, and heavy winter
snows usually are confined to the mountainous areas of the state. As remarkable
as it may seem, some of the heaviest snowfalls in the eastern United States
occur in the Appalachians of West Virginia, just a few miles west of Highland
County, Virginia. More than 2,500 millimeters (100 inches) fall annually in
this area; but Virginia, being in West Virginias snow shadow, receives only a
fraction of this amount.
While heavy snowfalls usually result from frontal storms, hurricanes are
created by a different weather pattern. Hurricanes and tropical storms are
intense cyclones formed within the deep, moist layers of air over warm,
tropical waters. Unlike frontal storms, which derive much of their energy from
the great temperature contrasts on either side of fronts, hurricanes and
tropical storms derive most of their energy from the warm ocean surface.
Tropical storms over the low-latitude oceans generally move from east to west.
As they move westward, they are displaced farther and farther to the north.
Eventually, they enter the westerly airstreams of the mid-latitudes, and then
recurve north and eastward. In the vicinity of Virginia, these tropical storms
move in a general northeasterly track, like frontal storms: and as they move
along this route, they intensify. Those storms that reach an intensity
indicated by sustained winds of at least seventy-two miles an hour are
classified as hurricanes.
Hurricanes and tropical storms that cross Virginia, including those
immediately offshore, occur most frequently in early August and September and
rarely appear before June or after November. During the month of September,
anywhere from 10 to 40 percent of Virginias rainfall comes from hurricanes and
tropical storms. When Hurricane Camille, Virginias most notable hurricane of
recent times, passed through the state in 1969, upwards of 840 millimeters (33
inches) of rain fell on the eastern slopes of the Blue Ridge in Nelson County
and caused record floods along the James River.
Before the turn of the century, hurricane and tropical storm passages
across Virginia were relatively common, averaging one per year. From 1905 to
1920, however, a hurricane struck, on the average, only one year in every five.
The frequency then increased to about three hurricanes in a five-year period
before decreasing again in the 1960s and 1970s. The reasons for these variations
are as yet unknown.
Thunderstorms, which occur in all months of the
year, are most common in the deep, moist, warm air of tropical origin that is
typical of summer. In Virginia, days with thunderstorms are recorded at
commercial and military airports. Over the last two decades the state has
averaged one thunder-storm day a decade in January, compared with nine
thunderstorm days a month in July. Thunderstorm days are most frequent in
southern Virginia, particularly in the far southwestern section, while northern
Virginia experiences the least number of such storms. Thunderstorms are also
most likely to occur during the warmest part of the day, with 4:00 p.m. the
most probable time of occurrence. In Roanoke, for example, thunderstorms occur
ten times more frequently at 4:00 p.m. than at 10:00 a.m. and five times more
frequently at 4:30 p.m. than at 7:00 p.m.
At Norfolk, thunderstorms are also most frequent at 4:00 p.m., remaining
common there until about midnight. Thunderstorms produce complex patterns of rainfall, such that areas of
heavy rain may be next to areas with little or no rain.